Professor Rakesh Bhatnagar


Kumaun University, Nainital



Ph. D. (Biochemistry), National Sugar Institute, Kanpur. 
M.Sc. (Chemistry), Kanpur University, Kanpur.



Professor, School of Biotechnology, JNU, New Delhi.


Coordinator, Bioinformatics Centre, JNU, New Delhi


Associate Professor, Special Centre for Biotechnology, JNU, New Delhi.


Senior NRC Associate, USAMRIID, Fredrick, USA.


Visiting Associate, NHLBI, NIH, Bethesda, USA.


Visiting Associate Prof. Lab. Connect. Tissue, CHU, Caen, France.


Scientist, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Institute, Freiburg University, Germany

Area of Interest:

Research Summary:

Prof. Rakesh Bhatnagar has been working in the field of anthrax for the past 20 years. He has to his credit the development of genetically engineered vaccine against anthrax. The technology of recombinant anthrax vaccine has been transferred to Panacea Biotec Ltd. and the vaccine has successfully undergone Phase I and Phase II Human clinical trials. Also, his research group pioneered the expression of Protective Antigen gene in a plant system, which marks the first milestone towards developing edible vaccine against anthrax. DNA vaccine against Rabies has been developed in his laboratory and is ready for technology transfer. Further research is being done to develop DNA vaccine against anthrax. Laboratory is also engaged in study of programmed cell death in prokaryotes. His research group has recently initiated research in other important infectious disease systems like Mycobacterium, Brucella; aiming to open avenues for their control.


Administrative experience:

2011-2012: Director, Academic Staff College, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.

2009-2011: Director Advanced Instrumentation Research Facility, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. 

International Collaboration/Consultancy:

Prof. Vitor Martin dos Santos, Systems and Synthetic Biology, Wageningen University, Netherlands.

Associate Professor Ram Samudral, Computational Biology Research Group University of Washington, Seattle. 

Prof. Venugopal Nair, Head, Avian Infectious Disease, Institute of Animal Health, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. United Kingdom


Peer reviewed publications/Books:

115. Divya Goel, Bhatnagar R. (2012) Intradermal immunization with outer membrane protein 25 protects Balb/c mice from virulent B. abortus 544. Molecular Immunology 51(2):159-68.

114. Kulshreshtha P, S. Aggarwal, H. Jaiswal, Bhatnagar R. (2011) S-layer homology motif is an immunogen and confers protection to mouse model against anthrax. 50(1-2):18-25

113. Kaur M., Bhatnagar R. (2011) Recent Progress in development of anthrax vaccinesRecent Patents  on Biotechnology,5(3):148-159.

112. Gorantala J, Grover S, Goel D, Rahi A, Chandra S, Bhatnagar R (2011). A plant based protective antigen [PA(dIV)] vaccine expressed in chloroplasts demonstrates protective immunity in mice against anthrax. Vaccine; 2011 Jun 15; 29(27):4521-33.

111. Rahi A., Rehan M., Garg R, Tripathi D., Lynn A.M., and Bhatnagar   R. (2011).  Enzymatic characterization of Catalase from Bacillus anthracis and prediction of critical residues using information theoretic measure of Relative Entropy.  Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 2011 Jul 22; 411(1):88-95.

110. Kulshreshtha P., and Bhatnagar R. (2011).  Inhibition of anthrax toxins with a bispecific monoclonal antibody that cross reacts with edema factor as well as lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis. Molecular Immunology; Sep;48(15-16):1958-65.

109. Kanchan Sinha and Rakesh Bhatnagar (2010) GroEL provides protection against Bacillus anthracis  infection in BALB/c mice Molecular Immunology;  48, 264-71

108. Nikita ChopraShivangi AgarwalShashikala VermaSonika Bhatnagar and  Bhatnagar R. (2011). Modeling of the structure and interactions of the B.   anthracis antitoxin, MoxX: deletion mutant studies highlight its modular structure and repressor function. J Comput Aided Mol Des;25:275–291.

107. Matta S.K, Agarwal S, Bhatnagar R (2010) Surface localized and extracellular    Glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase of Bacillus anthracis is a plasminogen binding protein. Biochim. Biophys Acta. ; 1804(11):2111-2120

106. Agarwal S., Mishra N.K., Bhatnagar S. and Bhatnagar R. (2010) PemK Toxin of Bacillus anthracisIs a Ribonuclease  an insight into its active site, structure and function J.Biol.Chem ;285,7254-7270.

105. Kaur M., Saxena A., Rai A. and BhatnagaR. (2010) Rabies DNA vaccine encoding lysosome targeted glycoprotein supplemented with EMULSIGEN D confers complete protection in pre-and post-exposure studies in BALB/c mice. FASEB J 24;173-183.

104. Chawla A. and Bhatnagar R. (2009) Anthrax Vaccine. Adult Immunization 1, 1-7.

103. Chawla A., Midha S. and Bhatnagar R. (2009) Efficacy of recombinant anthrax vaccine      against Bacillus anthracis aerosol spore challenge: Pre-clinical evaluation in Rabbits and Rhesus monkeys. Biotechnology Journal; 41-9.

102. Kaur M., Chug H., Singh H., Chandra S., Mishra M., Sharma M. and Bhatnagar R.(2009).Identification And Characterization Of Immunodominant B-Cell Epitope of The C-Terminus Of Protective Antigen Of Bacillus anthracisMolecular  Immunology; 46,2107-2115.

101. Kaur M., Rai A. and Bhatnagar R. (2009) Rabies DNA vaccine: No impact of MHC Class I and Class II targeting sequences on immune response and protection against lethal challenge. Vaccine;27, 2128-2137.

100.  Midha S. and Bhatnagar R. (2009) Genetic Immunization with GPI-anchored Anthrax Protective antigen raises combined CD1d- and MHC II-restricted Antibody Responses by Natural Killer T cell-mediated help. Vaccine ;27(11):1700-9

99.  Midha S. and Bhatnagar R. (2009) Anthrax protective antigen administered by DNA vaccination to distinct subcellular locations potentiates humoral and cellular immune responses. European Journal of Immunology; 39(1): 159-77

98.  Kanodia S., Agarwal S., Singh P., Agarwal S., Singh P. and Bhatnagar R. (2009) Biochemical and functional characterization of alanine racemase spore protein of Bacillus anthracisBiochem.Mol.Biol. Reports; 42, 1, 47-52.

97.  Joshi M.C., Sharma A., Kant S., Birah A., Gupta G.P., Khan S.R., Bhatnagar R. and Banerjee N. (2008) An Insecticidal GroEL protein with chitin binding activity from Xenorhabdus nematophila.J.Biol.Chem.; 2008 Oct 17;283(42):28287-96.

96.  Agarwal S., Kulshrestha P., Mukku D.B. and Bhatnagar R. (2008) a-enolase binds to     human plasminogen on the surface of Bacillus anthracisBiochim.Biophys Acta.; 1784 :986-94

95.  Gupta M., Alam S. and Bhatnagar R. (2007) Catalytically inactive anthrax toxin(s) are potential prophylactic agents. Vaccine; 25: 8410-8419.

94.  Chandra S, Kaur M, Midha S, Gorantala J. and Bhatnagar R. (2007) Induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against Mycobacterial antigen using domain I of anthrax edema factor as antigen delivery system. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun;357:50-55.

93.  Aziz M. A., Midha S., Waheed S. M. and Bhatnagar R. (2007) Oral vaccines: New needs, New Possibilities. BioEssays 29: 591-604.

92.  Agarwal S., Agarwal S. and Bhatnagar R. (2007) Identification and Characterization of a Novel Toxin-Antitoxin Module from Bacillus anthracis. FEBS Letters  581: 1727-34.

91.  Chandra S., Kaur M., Midha S., Bhatnagar N. B. and Bhatnagar R. (2006) Evaluation of the ability of N-terminal fragment of lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis for delivery of Mycobacterium T-cell antigen ESAT-6 into cytosol of antigen presenting cells to elicit effective cytotoxic Tlymphocytes response.Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 351: 702-7.

90.  Gupta M., Alam S. and Bhatnagar R. (2006) Kinetic characterization and ligand binding studies of His351 mutants of Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics;446: 28 -34.

89.  Alam S., Gupta M. and Bhatnagar R. (2006) Inhibition of platelet aggregation by anthrax edema toxin. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 399: 107 -114.

88.  Midha S., Mishra R., Aziz M. A., Sharma M., Mishra A., Khandelwal P. and Bhatnagar R. (2005) Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Recombinant Nitric Oxide Synthase-like protein fromBacillus anthracis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. ; 336: 346-356

87.  Aziz M. A., Sikriwal D., Singh S., Jarugula S., Kumar A. and Bhatnagar R. (2005) Transformation of an edible crop with pagA gene of Bacillus anthracis .FASEB J;. 19:1501-3

86.  Singh S., Singh A., Aziz M. A., Waheed S. M., Bhat R. and Bhatnagar R. (2004) Thermal   inactivation of Protective Antigen of B. anthracis and its prevention by polyosmolytes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun322:1029-1037.

85.  Ahuja N., Kumar P. and Bhatnagar R. (2004) Adenylate cyclase toxins. Crit. Rev.Microbiol.;30: 187–196.

84.  Singh J., Joshi M.C. and Bhatnagar R. (2004) Cloning and expression of mycobacterial   glutamine synthetase gene in E. coli. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 317 : 634-638.

83.  Singh S., Aziz M. A., Khandelwal P., Bhat R. and Bhatnagar R. (2004) The  osmoprotectants glycine and its methyl derivatives prevent the thermal inactivation of protective antigen of Bacillus anthracisBiochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 316 : 559–564.

82.  Khandelwal P., Bhatnagar R., Choudhury D. and Banerjee N. (2004)  Characterization of a cytotoxic pilin subunit of Xenorhabdus nematophila.  Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 314943-949.

81.  Chattopadhyay A., Bhatnagar R. and Bhatnagar N. (2004) Bacterial Insecticidal Toxins Crit.  Rev.  Microbiol.; 30 : 33–54.

80.  Ahuja N., Kumar P., Alam S., Gupta M. and Bhatnagar R. (2003)  Deletion mutants of protective antigen that inhibit anthrax toxin both in vitro and in vivo Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 307:  446–450.

79.  Aziz M.A., Singh S., Kumar A. P. and Bhatnagar R. (2002) Expression of protective antigen in transgenic plants: a step towards making edible vaccine against anthrax. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 299:345-51.

78.  Kumar P., Ahuja N. and Bhatnagar R. (2002) Anthrax edema toxin requires influx of calcium for inducing cAMP toxicity in target cells. InfectImmun.; 70: 4997-5007.

77.  Singh S., Ahuja N., Chauhan V., Rajasekaran E., Waheed S.M., Bhat R. and Bhatnagar R. (2002) Gln 277 and Phe 554 residues are involved in thermal inactivation of protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis  BiochemBiophys. Res. Commun;. 296:1058-1062.

76.  Chauhan V. and Bhatnagar R. (2002) Identification of amino acid residues of Protective antigen involved in binding to Lethal factor Infect.  Immun.; 70: 4477- 4484.

75.  Singh A., Chauhan V., Sodhi A. and Bhatnagar R. (2002) Asp 187 and Phe 190 residues in lethal factor are required for the expression of  anthrax lethal toxin activity FEMS Microbiology Letters;212 :183-6.

74.  Singh A., Singh S., Waheed S. M., Khandelwal P. and Bhatnagar R. (2002) Expression of    anthrax lethal factor gene by osmolyte induction FEMS Microbiology Letters; 209 : 301-5.

73.  Ahuja N, Kumar P. and Bhatngar R. (2001) Hydrophobic residues Phe552, Phe554, Ile562, Leu566 and Ile574 are required for oligomerization of anthrax protective antigen. Biochem. Biophy. Res. Commum;287: 542-9.

72.  Ahuja N., Kumar P. and Bhatnagar R. (2001) Rapid Purification of Recombinant Anthrax-Protective Antigen under Nondenaturing Conditions. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 286:6-11.

71.  Bhatnagar R. and Batra S. (2001) Anthrax Toxin. Crit. Rev. Microbiol.; 27: 167-200.

70.  Gupta P., Sahai V. and Bhatnagar R. (2001) Enhanced expression of the recombinant  lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis by Fed-Batch culture. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.;285: 1025-1033.

69.  Gupta P., Singh S., Tiwari A., Bhat R. and Bhatnagar R. (2001) Effect of pH on stability of Anthrax lethal factor : Correlation between denaturation and activity. Biochem. Biophy. Res. Commun.;284: 568-73.

68.  Chauhan V., Singh A., Waheed S. M., Singh S. and Bhatnagar R. (2001) Constitutive Expression of Protective Antigen Gene of Bacillus anthracis in Escherichia coli.  Biochem. Biophy. Res. Commun;283 : 308-315.

67.  Kumar P., Ahuja N. and Bhatnagar R. (2001) Purification of Anthrax Edema Factor fromEscherichia coli and identification of residues required for binding to Protective Antigen Infec. & Immun; 69 : 6532-6.

66.  Batra S., Gupta P., Chauhan V., Singh A. and Bhatnagar R. (2001) Trp 346 and Leu 352 residues in protective antigen are required for the expression of anthrax lethal toxin activity. Biochem. Biophy. Res. Commun;. 281: 186-192.

65.  Gupta P., Singh A., Chauhan V., and Bhatnagar R. (2001) Involvement of residues 147VYYEIGK153 in binding of Lethal factor to Protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis. Biochem. Biophy. Res. Commun; 280: 158-163.

64.  Adhuna., Salotra P. and Bhatnagar R. (2000) Nitric oxide induced expression of stress proteins in virulent and avirulent promastigotes of L. donovani. Immunology Letters; 71: 71-176.

63.  Gupta P., Waheed S.M. and Bhatnagar R. (1999) Expression and purification of the recombinant Protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis. Protein Expression and Purification; 16: 369-376.

62.  Bhatnagar R., Ahuja N., Goila R., Khetarpal S., Waheed S.M. and Gupta P. (1999) Activation of phospholipase C and protein kinase C is required for expression of anthrax lethal toxin cytotoxicity in J774A. 1 cellsCellular Signalling; 11: 111-116.

61.  Gupta P., Khetarpal S., Chopra A.P., Singh Y. and Bhatnagar R. (1998) Expression and Purification of the recombinant Lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis. Infec Immun; 66: 862-865.

60.  Bhatnagar R., Dixit A. and Roy K.B. (1998) Biochemistry (Book) National Open School..

59.  Salotra P. and Bhatnagar R. (1998) Role of stress proteins in Leishmania in Microbes: r Health, Wealth & Sustainable Environment, Ed. A. Verma, 595-615.

58.  Adhuna., Salotra P., Mukhopadhya B. and Bhatnagar R. (1997) Modulation of macrophage heat shock protein (HSPs) expression in response to intracellular infection by virulent and avirulent strains of Leishmania donovani. Biochem. Mol. Bio. Int.; 43: 1265-1275.

57.  Radha C., Salotra P., Bhat R. and Bhatnagar R. (1996) Thermostabilization of Protective tigen-the binding component of anthrax lethal toxin.J. Biotechnol. ; 50: 235-242.

56.  Salotra P., Seal K.P., Krishna N., Jaffe H. and Bhatnagar R. (1995) Expression of Dnak and GroEl homologs in Leuconostoc mesenteroides in response to heat shock or chemical stress. FEMSMicrobiology Letters; 131: 7-62.

55.  Salotra P., Chauhan D., Rallhan R. and Bhatnagar R. (1995) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces preferential expression of stress proteins in virulent promastigotes of Leshmania donovani. Immunology Letters, 44: 1-5.

54.  Richa S., Salotra P., Bhatnagar R. and Datta K. (1995) L-alanine- dioxovalerate transaminase inLeishmania donovani that differs from the mammalian enzyme. Microbiol. Res.; 150: 1-5.

53.  Salotra P., Ralhan R. and Bhatnagar R. (1994) Differential expression of heat shock proteins in virulent and attenuated strains of Leishmania donovani. Biochemistry & Molecular BiologyInternational; 33 : 691-697.

52.  Bhatnagar R. and Friedlander A.M. (1994) Protein synthesis is required for the expression nthrax lethal toxin cytotoxicity. Infec. Immun;. 62 : 2958-62.

51.  Friedlander A.M., Bhatnagar R., Leppla S.H., Johnson L. and Singh Y. (1993) Characterization of macrophage sensitivity and resistance to anthrax lethal toxin. Infec. lmmun. 61: 245-252.

50.  Dhaunsi G. S., Sidhu G.S., GargU.C., Singh Y., Chakravarti R.N. and Bhatnagar R. (1990) Effect on intestinal nutrient uptake and brush border membrane enzymes in response to atherogenic diet in rhesus monkeys. J. Med. Primatol. 18 : 467-475.

49.  Dhaunsi G.S., Garg U.C., Bhatnagar R., Ganguly N.K. and Chakravarti R.N.  (1990) Renal brush border membrane enzymatic status in atherogenic diet fed Rhesus monkeys. Biochemical Archives.6 : 95-102.

48.  Leppla S.H., Friedlander A.M., Singh Y., Cora E.M. and Bhatnagar R.  (1990) A model for anthrax lethal toxin action at the cellular level. Salisbury Medical Bullatin 68 : 41-43.

47.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Sharma S. and Bhatnagar R.(1990)  Humoral and cell mediated immunity in pyelonephritic rats immunized with fimbriae of Escherichia coliMed. Sci. Res. 18 : 601-603.

46.  Singh Y., LepplaS.H., Bhatnagar R. and Friedlander A.M. (1990) Basis of cellular sensitivity and resistance to anthrax lethal toxin. Salisbury Medical Bullatin. 68 : 46-48.

45.  Singh Y., Leppla S.H., Bhatnagar R. and Friedlander A. (1989) Internalization and processing ofBacillus anthracis lethal toxin-sensitive and resistance cells. J. Biol. Chem254  : 11099-11102.

44.  Bhatnagar R., Singh Y., Leppla S. and Friedlander A. (1989) Calcium is required for expression of anthrax lethal toxin activity. Infec. lmmun. 57 : 2107-2114.

43.  Krishna G., Singh Y., Sidhu G.S. and Bhatnagar R.  (1989) Mechanism of MPTP induced Parkinson's disease at cellular and subcellular level. In Neurochemical Pharmacology(Ed Costa) p 165-174.

42.  Singh Y., Bhatnagar R., Sidhu G.S., Batra J.K. and Krishna G. (1989)MPTP inhibits proton motive force in energized mitochondria. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 271 : 217-222.

41.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Sharma S. and Bhatnagar R. (1989) Transport of nutrients into the renal brush border membrane vesicles as markers in evaluating the role of antibodies in modulation of ascending pyelonephritis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 57 : 155-160.

40.  Mereish K.A., Solow R., Singh Y. and Bhatnagar R. (1989) Comparative toxicity of cyclic peptides.Med. Sci. Res. 17 : 869-871.

39.  Mauviel A., Teyton L., Bhatnagar R., Penfornis H., Laurent M., Hartman D., Bonaventure J., Loyau G., Saklatvala J. and Pujol J.P. (1988) Interleukin-I modulates collagen gene expression in cultured synovial cells. Biochem. J. 252 : 247-255.

38.  Garg U.C., Rai N., Dhaunsi G.S., Sidhu G.S., Singh Y., Ganguly N.K. and Bhatnagar R. (1988) A spectrophotometric assay for calmodulin. Biotechniques : 294-296.

37.  Falah A.M.S., Bhatnagar R., Bhatnagar N., Singh Y., Murthy P.S. and Venkitasubramanian T.A.  (1988) On the presence of calmodulin like protein in Mycobacteria FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 56 : 89-94.

36.  Singh Y., Chaudhary V.K., Bhatnagar R. and Misra U.K. (1988) Mixed function oxidases in response to quality and quality of dietary protein. Biochem. International 17 : 1-8.

35.  Singh Y., Bhatnagar R. and Misra U.K. (1988) Hepatic phosphatidylcholine synthesis in defficiency of lysine and lysine and threonine : Effect of malathione. Experientia 44 : 758-759.

34.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) Brush border enzyme as markers for ascending pyelonephritis: active immunization with pilli. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 43 : 127-131.

33.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Sharma S. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) New sensitive markers for the detection of experimental ascending pyelonephritis. Life Sci. 41 : 1-56.

32.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Sharma S., Chakravarti R.N. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) Quantitative histopathological method for the evaluation of       experimental pyelonephritis in rat.  Med. Sci. Res.15 :367-368.

31.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) Towards the mechanism of altered nutrients uptake in brush border membrane vesicles from pyelonpehritis rats Biochem. Int. 14 : 949-955.

30.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) Calmodulin: Factor contributing towards altered nutrient uptake in pyelonephritis in rat. Med. Sci. Res. 15 : 369-370.

29.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Sharma S. and Bhatnagar R.  (1987) Antipilli antibodies afford protection against ascending pyelonephritis in rats: evaluation by renal brush border membrane enzymes. Biochem. Int. 14 : 517-524.

28.  Garg U.C., Sharma D.K., Dhaunsi G.S. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) Altered intestinal brush border membrane enzymes and nutrients uptake in naloxone treated rats Med. Sci Res. 15 : 551-552.

27.  Gill N.J., Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Mahajan R.C. and Bhatnagar R. (1987). Alteration of brush border membrane enzymes in intestinal amoebiasis. Med. Sci. Res. 15 : 101-102.

26.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Sharma S. and Bhatnagar R. (1987). Prevention of alteration in the uptake of nutrients in pyelonephritis immunization with pilli. Biochem. Int. 15 : 881-886.

25.  Gill N.J., Garg U.C., Ganguly N.Y., Mahajan R.C. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) Release of lysosomal enzymes by kupffer cells in experimental hepatic amoebiasis Med. SciRes. 15 : 991-992.

24.  Dhaunsi G.S., Garg U.C., Sharma D.K., Aulakh B.S. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) Towards the mechanism of protection against indomethace in induced gastrointestinal ulceration by naloxone.Med. SciRes., 15: 1034-1035.

23.  Dilwari J.B., Kumar A.V.K., Khurana S., Bhatnagar R. and Dash R.J. (1987)The effect of legumes on blood glucose in diabetesmelitus. Ind. J. MedRes. 85 :184-187.

22.  Bhatnagar R., Penfornis H., Mauviel A., Loyau G., Saklatvala J. and Poujol J. P. (1986) Interleukin-I inhibits and synthesis of collagen by fibroblast. Biochem. Int. 13 : 709-720.

21.  Sidhu G.S., Dhuansi G.S., Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Chakravarti R.N. and Bhatnagar R. (1986) Renal nutrients uptake and brush border membrane enzymes in cholesterol fed guinea pigs. Biochem. Med. 36 : 179-185.

20.  Sidhu G.S., Garg U.C., Dhaunsi G.S., Bhari S.K. and Bhatnagar R. (1986) Enzymatic and transport studies in cholesterol fed guinea pigs using intestinal brush border membrane vesicle. Digestion, 34: 251-258.

19.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Sharma S. and Bhatnagar R. (1986) Kinetics of nutrient uptake in renal brush border membrane vesicles from rat with experimental pyelonephritis  Biochem. Int. 7-14.

18.  Garg U.C., Sidhu G.S., Sharma S., Chakravarti R.N., Ganguly N.K. and Bhatnagar R. (1986) The presence of calmodulin in renal micrivillar core. Int. Res. Comm. Sys. Med. Sci14 : 752-753.

17.  Garg U.C., Sidhu G.S., Sharma S., Chakravarti R.N. and Bhatnagar R. (1985) Pyelonephritis alters the reabsorption of nutrients and brush border enzymes of rat kidney Biochem. Int11 : 145-152.

16.  Dhaunsi G.S., Garg U.C., Sidhu G.S. and Bhatnagar R. (1985)Enzymatic andtransport studies on rat intestinal brush border membrane vesicles bound to pea and lentil lectins. Int. Res. Comm. Sys. MedSci. 13 : 469-70.

15.  Bhatnagar R., Bhatnagar N. and Prabhu K.A. (1985) Extracellular dextransucrase from a new strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroidesInt. Res. Comm. Sys. Med. Sci. 13 : 129-130.

14.  Bhatnagar N., Bhatnagar R. and Venkitasubramanian T.A. (1984) Characterization and metabolism of cGMP in Mycobacterium smegmatisBiochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 121 : 634-640.

13.  Decker K., Birmelin M., Bhatnagar R. and Rieder H. (1982) "Role of Ca ++ and prostaglandins in response of kuffer cells to external stimuli".In Sinusoidal Liver Cells (Ed. E. Wisse and D.L. Knook) Elsevier Biomed. Press Holland, pp 367-379.

12.  Bhatnagar R., Schade U., Rietschel E.T. and Decker, K. (1982) Involvement of prostaglandin E and cAMP in lipopolysaccride stimulated collagenase release in rat kupffer cells. EurJ. Biochem.125 : 125-130.

11.  Bhatnagar R. and Decker K. (1981) Collagenase assay using 3H- methylcollagen. J. Biochem.Biophys. Methods 5 : 147-152.

10.  Bhatnagar R., Schiermer R., Ernst M. and Decker K. (1981) Superoxide release by zymosan stimulated kupffer cells in vitroEur. J. Biochem. 119 : 171-175.

9.    Banerjee N., Bhatnagar R. and Viswanathan L. (1981) Inhibitionn of glycolysis by furfural inSaccharomyces cerevisiaeEur. J. Microbiol Biotech. 11 : 226-228.

8.    Banerjee N., Bhatnagar R. and Viswanathan L. (1981) Development of resistance inSaccharomyces cerevisiae against inhibitory effects of Browning reaction products EnzMicrob. Tech.: 24-28.

7.    Bhatnagar R., Banerjee N., Srivastava H.C., and Prabhu K.A. (1981) Structure of dextran synthesized by a new strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroidesCarbohy. Res. 89 : 346-349.

6.    Srivastava G.S., Bhatnagar R., Viswanathan R. and Venkitasubramanian T.A. (1980)  Microsomal and mitrochondrial cytochromes in acutely hypoxic rat liver and lung Ind. J. Biochem. Biophys. 17: 130-134.

5.    Banerjee N., Bhatnagar R. and Viswanathan L. (1980) Inhibition of growth and lactic acid synthesis by maltol in Lactobacillus casie and its reversal by glutamic acid  Experentia 36: 313-314.

4.    Bhatnagar R. and Prabhu K.A. (1976) Studies on the removal of dextran by dextranase Proc.Sug. Tech. Assoc. 42 : 101-106

3.    Bhatnagar R. and Prabhu K.A. (1975) Effect of disinfectants on dextran forming Leuconostoc bacteriaProc. Sug. Tech. Assoc. 41: 95-99.

2.    Bhatnagar R. and Prabhu K.A. (1975). Preliminary studies on the continuous fermentation of dextran. Proc. Sug. Tech. Assoc41: 91-94.

1.    Bhatnagar R. and Prabhu K.A. (1974) Studies on the use of cane waste molasses in the production of dextran. Proc. SugTech. Assoc. 40: 23-27.